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올인올 > 사전 일러두기


  • 1. Entries
  • 2. Parts of Speech
  • 3. Definitions
  • 4. Lables
  • 5. End-of-Entry Notes
  • 6. Abbreviations


(1) Main Entries
① All main entries appear flush to the left margin of the column. Certain main entries are shown in italics,
    but most are entered in romans.
② To provide information about where to break words at the end of a line, the Dictionary divides entry
    words into syllables, using a raised centered dot.
③ Single words are normally divided into syllables at their own entries only. In multiple-word entries,
    the individual words are marked far stress in relation to one another but are not syllabified.

(2) Variants
① A characteristic of the English language is the existence of alternate spellings and alternate terms.
    In the Dictionary, terms are usually defined at the forms a reader is most likely to find in contemporary
    writing, but common variant forms are shown at many entries. These forms range from simple spelling
    variants of the main entry (ameba-amoeba) through forms similar to the main entry but not identical,
    as those in which only the suffix differs (explor-atory-explorative), to forms that are substantially
    different from the main entry (riboflavin-vitamin B2).
② Many variant forms are entered as headwords in the main vocabulary listings, where they are not given
    full definitions but are cross-referred to the form that does have the definition.

(3) Undefined Entries.
The meanings of certain terms are evident from the sum of their parts, the already defined base word plus
a prefix or a suffix. There is consequently no need for the Dictionary to define all of these terms separately.
It should be understood that no group of run-on forms at any given entry and no list of prefixed terms at the
bottom of a page can be considered complete. Prefixes, like non- and re-, and suffixes, like -ly, -ity, -like,
and -ness, which are used to help form the undefined entries in this dictionary.

Among the abbreviations used for the traditional parts of speech are n., pron., adj., adv., conj., prep., and interj., standing for noun, pronoun, adjective, adverb, conjunction, preposition, and interjection, respectively. The generalized abbreviation v. for verb is also used, as at the beginning of a group of verbal idiom definitions, or for verbal list words that are both transitive and intransitive, or for inflected forms, when transitivity or intransitivity is labeled at following definitions. But most verb labels are specific: v.t. for transitive verbs and v.i.for those that are intransitive.
(1) Order
Definitions within an entry are individually numbered in a single sequence that includes all parts of speech. In each part of speech group, the most frequently encountered meanings generally come before less common ones.

(2) Idioms
Idioms, expressions whose meanings are not predictable from the usual meanings of the constituent elements, are shown under the main entry for one of the content words in the idiom. When the idiom might feasibly be listed at either of two such words, it is fully defined at one of them and may be cross-referred to this definition at the other.

(1) Field Labels
Some entries or individual definitions are restricted in use to one particular subject field, like history, or to two related fields, like chemistry and physics. These entries and definitions are appropriately labeled throughout the Dictionary.

(2) Usage Labels
① Labels of place Entries or definitions that are limited in use to a particular geographical location are given regional labels, like Canadian, Chiefly Brit., or South Mid-land U.S. Entries not so labeled are considered to be in general use throughout the U.S. A few terms, especially those with a somewhat rural flavor, like again or opry, are too widespread to warrant a specific regional label. These are labeled Dial.
② Labels Of time To help the user of the Dictionary discriminate between terms in contemporary use and terms of historical interest, the following labels are used: Obs. : Obsolete terms have not been in widespread use since about 1750. They may be encountered in literature written before this time. Archaic. : Entries or definitions now archaic were current roughly to 1900, but are now employed only as conscious archaisms. Rare. : This label indicates terms that, while not obsolete or archaic, are simply not often found in the contemporary idiom. Older Use. : A term with this label, though commonly used in the early part of the 20th century, is now primarily heard among older members of the population. Examples are certain slang terms from the 1920's or 1930's.
③ Labels Of style Entries that are not used freely as part of the standard vocabulary are given stylistic or states labels so that the reader can make useful judgments about the setting.

Informal.
An informal term is not likely to occur in formal, prepared speech or carefully edited writing except when used intentionally to convey a casual tone.

Nonstandard.
A nonstandard term is characteristic of the speech of persons with little education and is often regarded as a marker of low social status.

Slang.
Often metaphorical, slang terms may be vivid, playful, elliptical and ephemeral.

Vulgar.
Vulgar terms are considered inappropriate in many circumstances because of their association with a taboo subject. Major taboo subjects in English-speaking cultures are sex and excretion and the parts of the body associated with those functions.

Disparaging.
This label indicates that a term is used with disparaging intent, as to belittle a particular racial, religious, or social group.

Offensive.
This label indicates that the term so labeled is likely to be perceived as offensive by a listener or reader, whether or not any offense was intended.

Facetious.
A term may be labeled "Facetious" if it is used consciously for humorous or playful effect.

Baby Talk.
A term with this label is thought to be used by small children and is therefore used by adults in imitation of a child, as in speaking to babies, young children, sweethearts, or pets.

Literary.
An entry term with this label is used rarely in contemporary speech or writing except to create a literary, poetic, evocative effect.

Eye Dialect.
This label is used for deliberate misspellings in literature that are calculated to convey a character's lack of education or habitual use of dialectal pronunciations, but that in fact represent perfectly standard pronunciations, often the only ones in use, as the one conveyed by wimmin, for women.

Pron. Spelling.
Terms with this label, which stands for "Pronunciation Spelling”, differ from those labeled "Eye Dialect" in that they are not intended to convey lack of education, but merely continuous, especially rapid, speech. The label is used for such forms as gonna 'going to' (followed by a verb) and lemme 'let me', and the pronunciations they reflect, while not the only ones possible, are used by speakers at all educational and social levels, on formal as well as informal occasions.
Many entries feature additional information, which cannot be covered by definitions and labels alone. This information is contained in labeled notes and appears at the end of an entry, following the etymology and any derived, run-on forms.

(1) Synonym lists
Synonym lists and studies are preceded by -Syn. and maybe keyed to particular definitions by number.

(2) Antonym lists
Antonym lists are preceded by -Ant. These lists are brief, guiding the user to the entries of antonyms where a fuller treatment may be found.

(3) Usage Notes
Preceded by -Usage, these notes describe many of the disputed or problematic issues in grammar and usage.

(4) Pronunciation Notes
These notes, preceded by -Pronunciation, discuss the regional distribution, acceptability, or history of various pronunciations of the entry word.

(5) Regional Variation Notes
These notes constitute brief dialect studies that discuss different regional terms for the same item or different regional forms of the same word. They are preceded by -Regional Variation.

(1) Abbreviations used in the definitions
ab. About Abbr. abbreviation
adj. adjective
adv. adverb
Ant. antonym(s)
at. no. atomic number at. wt. atomic weight
C about (Latin circa)
cap., caps. capital, capitals
Cap. capital (of country or state)
Cf. compare (Latin confer)
cm centimeter, centimeters
compar. Comparative
conj. Conjunction
def., defs. definition, definitions
E east
esp. especially
1st pers. first person
fol. Followed
ft. foot, feet
gen. genitive
in. inch, inches
indic. Indicative
interj. Interjection
km kilometer, kilometers
l.c. lower case (not capitalized)
m meter, meters
mi. mile, miles
mm millimeter, millimeters
N north
n. noun
nom. Nominative
n.pl. plural noun
obj. objective
past part., pp. past participle
pl. plural
poss. Possessive
prec. preceded
prep. preposition
pres. present tense
pres. part. present participle
pron. Pronoun
pt. preterit (past tense)
S south
2nd pers. second person
sing. Singular
sp. gr. specific gravity
sq. cm square centimeter, square centimeters
sq. ft. square foot, square feet
sq. in. square inch, square inches
sq. Km square kilometer, square kilometers
sq. mi. square mile, square miles
sq. yd. square yard, square yards
subj. subjunctive
superl. Superlative
Syn. synonym(s)
3rd pers. third person
v. verb
v.i. intransitive verb
v.t. transitive verb
W west
yd. yard, yards

(2) Etymology Key
‡ probably earlier than
< descended from, borrowed from
<< descended from, borrowed from through intermediate stages not shown
> whence
? origin unknown
* unattested, reconstructed
abbr. abbreviation
abl. Ablative
acc. Accusative
adj. adjective, adjectival
adv. adverb, adverbial
alter. Alteration
Amer. Americanism
aph. Aphetic
appar. Apparently
assoc. association
aug. augmentative.
b. blend of, blended
c. cognate with
cf. compare
comb.form combining form
comp comparative
contr. Contraction
d. died
dat. Dative
deriv. derivative
dial dialect, dialectal
dim. Diminutive
E east, eastern
equiv. equivalent
etym. etymology, etymological
fem. Feminine
fig. figurative
freq. frequentative
fut. Future
gen. genitive
ger. gerund,gerundive
imit. Imitative
impv. Imperative indic. Indicative
inf. Infinitive
intransit. intransitive irreg. irregularly
lit. literally
masc. masculine
mod. Modern
N north, northern
n noun, nominal
neut. Neuter
nom. Nominative
n.s. noun stem
obl. Oblique
obs. Obsolete
orig. origin, originally
pass. Passive
perh. Perhaps
pl. plural
prep. Preposition
pres. Present
prob. Probably
pron. pronunciation, pronounced
prp. present participle
ptp. past participle
r. replacing
redupl. Reduplication
repr. Representing
resp. respelling, respelled
S south, southern
s. stem
sing. Singular
sp. spelling, spelled
subj. subjunctive
superl. Superlative
syll. Syllable
trans translation
transit. Transitive
ult. Ultimately
uncert. Uncertain
v. verb, verbal
var. variant
voc vocative
v.s. verb stem
W west, western

(3) Languages
AF Anglo-French
Afr African
Afrik Afrikaans
AL Anglo-Latin
Amer American
AmerInd American Indian
AmerSp American Spanish
Ar or Arab Arabic
Aram Aramaic
Austral Australian
Bulg Bulgarian
CanF Canadian French
Celt Celtic
Chin Chinese
D Dutch
Dan Danish
E English
EGmc East Germanic
Fr French
Fris Frisian
G German
Gallo-Rom Gallo-Romance
Gk Greek
Gmc Germanic
Goth Gothic
Heb Hebrew
Icel Icelandic
IE Indo-European
Ir Irish
It Italian
Japn Japanese
Kor Korean
L Latin
LaF Louisiana French
LG Low German
LGk Late Greek
Lith Lithuanian
LL Late Latin
MChin Middle Chinese
MD Middle Dutch
ME Middle English
MexSp Mexican Spanish
MF Middle French
MGk Medieval Greek
MHG Middle High German
MIr Middle Irish
ML Medieval Latin
MLG Middle Low German
ModGk Modern Greek
ModHerb Modern Hebrew
MPers Middle Persian
NL Neo-Latin
Norw Norwegian
OCS Old Church Slavonic
ODan Old Danish
OE Old English
OF Old French
OFris Old Frisian
OHG Old High German
OIr Old Irish
OIt Old Italian
OL Old Latin
ON Old nurse
ONF Old North French
OPers Old Persian
Opr Old Provencal
OPruss Old Prussian
ORuss Old Russian
OS Old Saxon
OSp Old Spanish
OSw Old Swedish
PaG Pennsylvania German
Pers Persian
Pg Portuguese
Pol Polish
Pr Provencal
Rom Romance
Rum Rumanian
Russ Russian
Scand Scandinavian
Scot Scottish
ScotGael Scots Gaelic
Sem Semitic
Skt Sanskrit
Slav Slavic
Sp Spanish
SpAr Spanish Arabic
Sw Swedish
SwissF Swiss French
Turk Turkish
VL Vulgar Latin
WAfr West African
WGmc West Germanic